JHSBC Oral History Collection

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Interviewed by Irene Dodek and Cyril Leonoff, September 25, 1997, Vancouver, B.C.
 
ID:          How did you get into business for yourself? What were the circumstances?
 
JD:          Well, I used to work for...Brown. And sometimes I was a salesman for the rest of it, you know. And I got to see the [restaurant] and I also got to see the country. And I decided to buy myself a little truck...with my brother. And I only did that for about maybe a year. My brother couldn't take it in the country. I bought a store on Robson Street. The building isn't there anymore. 912 Robson Street. And I bought it from this...for $300. I would go in the morning, and did the orders then I'd go down to Water Street and pick up what I needed for those orders. And then I would [wrap] them. In the first part, I delivered myself, and then I got a young fellow, about 18 years old, he worked for me, delivering. Then I bought another butcher shop. And then another one, and another one, and then I had five. But there was not much money in them. So the B.C. Livestock used to be here. And the farmers owned that. So, I started buying cattle and slaughtering them. And gradually started selling them, and...Pacific Meats was in troubel so I bought Pacific Meat for $50,000. I went to the bank and the bank gave me the money. I didn't have to go to Ottawa to finance...I went right in there, the fellow's name was Lampney.
 
ID:          That was the bank manager's name?
 
JD:          Yes, and I asked him for the money. And he said, 'see me tomorrow morning at 10:30,' or something. And I was [dead poor back then]. And he liked that. And he said, 'what do you need?' I said '$100,000.' He smoked a pipe and he said, 'okay!'
 
ID:          Just like that?
 
JD:          Yes.
 
ID:          I bet you never forgot that.
 
JD:          It's still with me...

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EB:         I remember one time when I was a kid, you see, we used to go to Moosomin, that was a town where we would take loads of wood to sell and we used to go with oxen. I used to take a piece of bread in my pocket and it’d freeze. And I’d chew it frozen and it could go all night because it was about 20 miles from our place to Moosomin and with oxen it takes a bit more than a whole day. We started out at night after supper and then we’d go all night, you see, and in the morning we’d come into Moosomin, you see, and sell our loads for a dollar, I think, a dollar and a quarter. If I had of put all the oxen in the stable, that would have taken all the money, you see, so the fellow that ran the stable used to say, 'well, we have a place outside where you can tie the oxen.' I had a bundle of hay with me to give the oxen food and he’d let me sleep on the floor there, in the office. They had a stove there, you see, and I’d put out my coat out on the floor and lay down and sleep down there. So we didn’t have to pay any hotel stuff. And that’s when we were pioneering.
 
And I remember one time I was coming home and it was 40 below zero. And I couldn't keep myself warm, you see, we were facing the wind, a very strong wind. Even the oxen, you see, they were going straight ahead and blowing their noses, you see. It was cold facing the wind. You see, an ox, it generally...to go home...whenever there was a road just like that going around to come out, the ox would go across, you see, to make a short cut. And in order to keep myself warm...I could've [kept] myself warm following the oxen but it was too slow so I had to go back half a mile, you see. And while I was there, the oxen were about three quarters of a mile away and I started running because I had to catch up to them. I was running and that's [how] I warmed myself, you know. And I was afraid to lay down on the sleigh to sleep in case I would freeze to death. So I kept awake by walking after the oxen.
 
And I came to our neighbour, about three or four miles from our house, and when we came down there, the oxen, being so cold they went in with their tongues right into the house. And the neighbour came out and asked, 'what's the matter?' This was Mrs. Pelenovsky. Came out and got a hold of me and said to me, 'well, you're going to freeze to death, you can't go home, you have to stay the night.' Well, I said, 'how can I stay here over night?' I said, 'my people will think that I froze to death.'
 
So I went to work and I wrote a little note and I tied the little note to the oxen's horns, telling Dad that I was staying over at the Pelenovsky's house, you see. And I let the oxen go home. So the oxen came home and the dogs started barking and my dad came out and he was unhitching the oxen and thought, 'Eli must be frozen someplace, [I] don't see him around and the oxen came home.' So he started going back. And my brother, you see, when he was taking the oxen apart to get them into the barn, he saw a little note on a horn. And the little note said that I was staying overnight at the Pelenovsky place. And they called Dad back, he had been looking for me."

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JG:          So how did you maintain a Jewish lifestyle?
 
BO:        Would you believe my mother brought her kosher food in from Quebec City [the family was living in Cabano, a small town outside of Quebec City at the time]? Every week we got a parcel of meat and poultry. Our house was strictly kosher. We had 4 sets of dishes, two for Pesach and two for the rest of the year. And on Pesach my mother used to go up to the dairy with her own pot and milk the cow herself into the pot, so the children could have fresh milk. We had chickens in our own yard so we had fresh eggs and eventually we had our own cow and my father owned a horse.
 
JG:          Did you celebrate the holidays with other Jewish families in the area, with
   your uncle and aunt?
 
BO:        No. The only holiday we celebrated with anybody, and that was just my father and myself, my father combined a buying trip with Rosh Hashanah/Yom Kippur and we went into Montreal. On the way we picked up some of the Jewish men from Rivière-Du-Loup because you had to change trains and we all went together to Montreal and we stayed with one of my father’s brothers. I remember sleeping on a bed made out of a rectangle of chairs, piled with pillows. My father belonged to what was called then the Romana Shul it was actually the Beth David synagogue, one of the largest synagogues in Montreal. I also remember very clearly Kippurs before Yontif…
 
JG:          Describe that.
 
BO:        My father or my uncle would take a white chicken by the legs and wave it over my head and say the Kippuris prayer and I was always petrified that the chicken would have a little diarrhea maybe [laughter].
 
JG:          It was a tense moment!
 
BO:        It was very tense, not knowing how the chicken felt [laughter].
 
[Fade]
 
JG:          Now you were always within walking distance of the synagogue with all of these homes, did you remain kosher and Shomer Shabbat, as your family had been?
 
BO:        Okay, as far as kosher is concerned when we came here we were not kosher. We did actually observe Pesach because when we drove out here it was Chol Ha-Mo'ed Pesach. We had fruit and juices a couple of boxes of matzah in the car and that’s how we travelled.
 
JG:          Yep I’ve travelled like that.
 
BO:        Yeah I would not desecrate Pesach even though we were travelling. But we weren’t kosher as far as the food we had in the house or our dishes. And what happened is that Anita [] came to a, I guess it was a debate, that some of the teenagers were participating in, Les Horowitz was one of the participants and there were a few other kids and they actually sent out a message to Anita anyway, about the confusion that existed between what they were learning in Talmud Torah and what they saw in their own homes. And they felt very confused about really what was right to do as far as kashrut and Shabbat observances and so on. Anita came home that night and she said from now on our home is going to be a kosher home. When she told this to Shirley Goldenberg, Shirley and the Rabbi came down here, koshered all of our cutlery, our pots, our pans, and they went out and bought us our first set of dishes from Army & Navy and our house has been kosher ever since.
 
JG:          So the kids teach the parents now and then.
 
BO:        Absolutely.

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SR: By the time we got to Vancouver at the very end of 1922. Say the beginning of 1923. I remember when I was kid growing up in Vancouver and I don’t think things changed very much in say, the 15 years that intervened. I remember believing, being told somehow or other that Vancouver had a population of about 500 Jewish families. Maybe 2500 people in all in the 1920s and 1930s. So I should think that they had maybe 1500 or so before the war (WWI). But I’m just guessing. I really don’t know.
 
JG:          Well, they certainly had enough to build a synagogue on Heatley Street…
 
SR:         I think the Heatley Street one was built after the way but I remember it very well of course. And next to it was the hader that I attended. The Hebrew school where we would go to for instruction several times a week.
 
JG:          So your parents came here because your father’s family had already settled?
 
SR:         Yeah, that’s right.
 
JG:          What did they do for a living?
 
SR:         Well my uncles did various things but soon at least after they got here they got into the sack business. I think they may have had to do peddling at the beginning but they got into the sack business. And each of them had a pretty good business dealing in bags, burlap and twine, that being the name on the window. Mostly it was used burlap bags, they also did some new bags and some other things, but it was used burlap bags which they would buy from the peddlers and then fix up, that is, repair, because many of them had holes, and then in turn sell them to people who wanted the burlap bags, people like farmers or many other people. So that was the business my uncles were in. When my father came here, he in turn became a peddler which must have been a tremendous hardship for him to have to start from scratch after have been a man of some substance and means. And I remember going with him as he would go from customer to customer. And these would be sometimes farmers out in Lulu Island or people with various stores who would have bags and he would sell them to my uncles, mostly my uncle Abe, who had a bigger business. And that was the way in which my father made a living. Not all unusual. It was practically the standard operating procedure for immigrants coming to at least Vancouver, probably all over North America, I should think. But at least in Vancouver, this is what you saw people doing. Later, they would try to—if they were young enough and vigorous enough—they would try to get on to other things. But that was a very common fate for the immigrants. Tough life.
 
JG:          Yes, I’m sure it was. The business was downtown in East Vancouver?
 
SR:         We lived at 641 East Georgia Street. The house is still there, which would be about two blocks from the shul. The shul was at Heatley and Pender, we were on Georgia, half a block from Heatley. So, my uncles’ business premises were on Powell Street and Pender Street, respectively. My father didn’t have a place of business, in so far as he did operate one, it would have been from our house, the garage.
 
JG:          The neighbourhood was largely Jewish? Describe the neighbourhood a little bit.
 
SR:         The neighbourhood was, it’s now called Strathcona. And it was a couple blocks south of Strathcona School. The neighbourhood was Jewish but not by any means mainly or exclusively so. It seemed to be the locale for all immigrant groups. So I remember when I went to Strathcona School, where I went until I was 8 years old, there was a statement going around then that Strathcona was the home of 95 different nationalities. And it may very well have been true. So I went to school with Chinese and Japanese, there were substantial colonies there. There were Italians, Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, lots of immigrants of various kinds. But it was the centre of Jewish life. Though already by the end of the 20s quite a number of the East End Jews had moved west to places like Fairview, and if they were well-to-do, to Shaughnessy. Some to the West End. Scattered in places like Kitsilano and so on. Mostly to Fairview in the vicinity of the first Jewish Community Centre on 11th and Oak. The centre was built in 1928, we moved to Fairview in 1929. So we were very much a part of the sort of standard ebb and flow of Jewish community life in Vancouver and probably in that sense shared characteristics and so on with many other Jews in the world.

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RT:         So I know you had a Bat Mitzvah and I’d like it if you could tell me a little bit more about how you prepared.
BC:         Mostly, I forget I even picked my portion out but I guess it has to do with when you’re born and what time of year you’re having your Mitzvah. [It is generally pegged to the torah portion close to one’s birth date on the Hebrew Calendar.] I forget how that came about but I remember there were certain calculations involved in it and then it was chosen and that was the part I was going to do. And then, of course there was the big hurdle of learning how to read it and speak it, and I didn’t know at all except for the little prayers that we did as a family on the holidays. Other than that I didn’t know anything. So Peter [a family friend who was her Hebrew teacher]- I pretty much - a couple times a week I would meet with Peter. He would come over here and I would learn. I had to learn with all the little accents [nikkudot – vowel symbols that indicate the pronunciation of a letter.]. I had to rely on that heavily because I didn’t know how to do it without them…
RT:         You mean the dots underneath the…
BC:         Yeah.
RT:         The nikkudots.
BC:         Yeah. And I learned that. And I would call, I would ask my aunt Liz, who is here right now, because her, both her children had a Bat Mitzvah and a Bar Mitzvah, and I would ask them, ‘What do you do for this and what do you do for that?’ if I ever had any questions. And other than that, it was a kind of “Here we go!”
RT:          Did Peter have a tape for you?
BC:         Yeah. And then there was also a woman, I believe she was from Vancouver and she recorded herself singing my portion for me and I learned by ear quite a bit, so that was really helpful.
RT:          How old were you? Were you twelve or thirteen?
BC:          I was thirteen.
RT:          And where did the impetus for having a Bat Mitzvah come from?
BC:          It came from…well I went to my cousin Max’s Bar Mitzvah and I thought it was great. I’m just six months younger than him and it wasn’t shortly after he had his, but I thought it was a very nice celebration of life and I wanted to have one too. Basically my other cousin Natalie she had her Bat Mitzvah but I couldn’t attend that. But it was just the idea that they got to have a celebration and they had a community to do it in and a synagogue. And then also my mom never got to have a Bat Mitzvah. She grew up in a very Jewish family and they went to synagogue but she never had a Bat Mitzvah. And it was sort of for both of us to go through together. She was very involved and really excited. I mean it was sort of for her as well. We could go through it together.
RT:         Did you have a Torah? Did they bring one in somehow?
BC:         The rabbi that we had, he…
RT:          I didn’t realize that, I should have asked you that. I just assumed that Peter conducted it. So the rabbi from Vancouver, Rabbi Marmorstein came and…
BC:         Yeah, we went and met him before the Bat Mitzvah because Peter wrote to him and asked if he would be willing to come and […] lead the services because Peter said that he would, but it would not be proper if he did, and that was okay by us. The whole Jewish community was very excited about a rabbi coming out. So we emailed him, and then we went to Vancouver and we met with him. And all day we were just at his house, talking. And he said that he would be able to do that.
 And then the prospect of bringing the torah out was quite a big deal. We had to go to the synagogue and actually borrow it for the weekend…or they had a spare one?
RT:         Was it Or Shalom?
BC:         I think so. That name rings a bell. And they had a big wooden case that they had it in and we carefully put it in our car and drove back with it and then the Bat Mitzvah was held in a community hall at Six Mile. Actually, before the Bat Mitzvah we put it on top of the piano because we figured that was a sacred enough place for it. And then we brought it to the hall for the Bat Mitzvah.
RT:         How did it go back then?
BC:         We drove it back.
RT:         Right after?
BC:         Not right after. It stayed there for a couple days. And I’m not sure if it went back with Yitzchak or if we drove it back.
RT:         Did all the family come in, fly in?
BC:         Yeah, lots of them did. Actually most of the relatives on my mom’s side, the Jewish side, they didn’t make it because we’re not particularly close with them. Because our connection was my mother’s parents and they passed away when I was nine so those connections are kind of fading. They obviously invited them but many of them weren’t able to make it. But my mom’s sisters and brother came with their families. And my dad’s mother and father came and that was—they’re Christian, not practicing Christian necessarily but they grew up Christian and brought my father up Christian so that was a new thing for them and they were very excited to come.
RT:         They were proud of you?
BC:         Yeah.
RT:         Were there lots of people from the community?
BC:         Yep, we invited everyone in the community, and lots of them made it, and then all the people in my life when I grew up were invited as well.
RT:          Seems like it was a wonderful celebration. Was there anything after? A
   lunch? Or party?
 
BC:         We had a party afterwards. So we had a caterer and lots of food. Everyone came to both events. And then a band—good friend of ours has a kind of blues/jazz/rock band—they came and played. It was all very exciting [laughs] and then we did some of the traditional dances too [the hora]. I got raised up on a chair and everyone went ‘die di die di die’ and we danced around. And my mother and father got lifted up on a chair, and some family members.

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JG: Right. I don’t want to pass over that. What is a Chevra Kadisha and who is involved in the procedures?
 
BO: Okay, Chevra Kadisha is, if you will, a burial society. They’d made up of, it’s made up of people, presumably, who are observant Jews. These people prepare the body for burial, and these people on a rotating basis, sit with the body until such time as the funeral takes place. These are very dedicated people, it’s something that not everybody would like to do. We have a women’s Chevra Kadisha and a men’s Chevra Kadisha. Of course it’s obvious that one looks after women and the other looks after men. It’s been pretty much the same people for several years. Every once in a while we get a new member joining. It’s a type of position that you can’t just go out and hire somebody to do. It’s something that somebody does because they have a special feeling for the person who is being buried.
 
JG:          Now, can anyone - does it serve anyone in the community or is it just for members of Schara Tzedeck?
 
BO:        Serves everybody in the community. It’s the only Chevra Kadisha in Vancouver, anyway. I was going to say all of British Columbia because I don’t think there’s an official Chevra Kadisha anywhere else including Victoria, to the best of my knowledge. But anyway it serves all of British - all of Vancouver and the outlying areas and it serves all of the synagogues, certainly not just for Schara Tzedeck.
 
JG:          Okay and if someone is not affiliated with a synagogue and you know that he or she has died and they’re Jewish…
 
BO:        They still get looked after. We even look after bodies that have to be shipped elsewhere. The body is prepared and put in a casket and sent where ever they have to be sent. We’ve sent some to Israel, to the prairies, to Montreal, still looked after by the Chevra Kadisha.

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AG: With your mother. What was her name?
 
EK: My mother, my mother… was a model in one of the biggest fur salons. She was a beauty, people would turn their head on the street as she would be walking, I remember that. Not as bright as my grandma but she was very beautiful – [laughs] usually the two don’t go very well together unfortunately, you know – we are in the middle. So she got married and that was it; I don’t know what year she got married, I don’t remember that but I don’t think that’s too crucial… it has to be before I was born so probably ’32 or ’31. She was very young – wait a minute- she was just past 20 so she was born in 1913… how’s your mathematics?
 
AG:         Maybe she would have been 20 years old in 1933.
 
EK:         So something like that, 19 or 20, right. So then until my father was taken away she was staying with us at home and then my father had to go for forced labour, then she went and worked in the franchise business for my uncle, I mean my father had some shares. So that was that, and my grandma, I mean her mother, my mother’s mother, stayed with us to run the household so she could go to work and then comes 1944 March 15th – that’s the crucial date - from that date we already were ordered to wear the Mogen Dovid, you know the yellow star, and I was still going to school with that yellow star sewn on my coat, and it was horrible, you never forget that. I think it was the end of June when we had to move into designated houses, which was in the ghetto area but it wasn’t enclosed yet but that building was, the name of the street was called Vas Utca and that was in the real Jewish quarter of Budapest.
 
AG:         Had you lived near there before? Had you lived in the Jewish area before?
 
EK:         No, no, no… we lived in the Eight District where my grandmother and the business was and where lived all the family. No, no, where we lived this was the Jewish district. We lived where most of the assimilated Jews lived; there is a distinction you see.
 
AG:         As a child did you speak any languages other than Hungarian?
 
EK:         Not before the war, no. I had some instructions, I remember, in a synagogue, but there is such a vague recollection I have. All the other memories are so much stronger, which I am sure is not unusual with people, I am not an exception. No, I did not read Hebrew; I did not do any of this. We had some lessons, I remember, but that was just before the war and was lots of trouble, you know, the last part of it. So then, we were moved in there, there were curfews; limited access to going to the other part of town, but it wasn’t really closed like later on. Then came the Nazis, and the Hungarian Nazis you know, the whole Horthy regime, you probably heard of it. Goering collapsed and it was getting more and more vicious, the whole situation, and then the Germans were really clamping down and making the ghetto fight. Just before that, because my father and my uncle had the Swedish ball-bearing SKF, that’s the famous company the Swedish ball-bearing company franchise; Wallenberg at that time was starting to issue those letters of protection, my mother and myself and my sister had them. My uncle got them, because he was married to a Gentile, and he was not, because he served in the First World War, for one reason or another he was not taken. I don’t know why or how he managed it, but anyway we got this letter of protection, then we had to be removed at night under secrecy to another part, close to the shores of the Danube in another district, Fifth district of Budapest, and then we were in December already, that was horrendous, that was just awful, very bad memories. Anyway we had not enough food; ten of us were sleeping in one room. I remember I slept on two armchairs, their legs were tied on the bottom so I wouldn’t fall or push it away This was a very select group, needless to say, and I, without a Mogen Dovid, I would go out because I was very responsible and very mature for my age. You see when we went with these letters of protection also both of my grandmothers came with us but they did not have a letter of protection and my mother and my uncle felt that it’s possible that they can slip aside. I would go to one of the markets there and I would go and buy some food and of course walk on the street; they didn’t know that I was a Jew; I didn’t look like too much of a Jewish kid so I got away with it. And the last couple of weeks in December they came and examined everybody, they lined up everybody and who didn’t have the letter of protection they just put them in the lineup and they were going to take them to the ghetto. And my sister goes with my grandma so I had to go and rescue her from the lineup; but anyway both of my grandmothers survived in a ghetto. Amazing. Anyhow I have seen people being shot in the dining room, we were not very far, those who were not taken were just put up, line up, and shot. Horrible, I never forget those things. So, it’s enough for the past, isn’t it?

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LR: Is anything more you can tell us about the actual furniture store itself [Donner’s Furniture Store in Vancouver, 1127 Granville Street].

JE: I think in my interview with you previously, we did a bit of our own manufacturing at one point. We did… we had a hardware store; it was like three different components.

LR: That’s right, I remember that.

JE: Hardwood, Furniture and the unpainted furniture. And then it was actually… we sort of catered to the middle and lower class. So we weren’t really that competitive necessarily. You didn’t have to… we weren’t in competition with the Wosk’s or Hope or Belmont. They had sort of the upper class type furniture.

CP: But we also had appliances

JE: We had everything, we had toys. We were just the whole works. And it was great. It was really, buy everything for your house from one store. And at one time it did, as I say, we also had the manufacturing. I don’t know much really about that end of it. I don’t know …It was not a long period of time. They had… underneath… it’s quite a large store. They actually stored a lot of furniture because they had a basement and so they could actually store a lot of material. They didn’t just have to order it in as it was sold. They actually had a huge warehouse in both stores. And as I say, I don’t know much about the manufacturing but they touched on that. And they enjoyed it so maybe that’s important to tell you. They loved working together, loved it! And they loved working with Nana. And they enjoyed going to work, they enjoyed being together and they all took their days off together and I told you, whenever they socialized… right to the very end…the last one went… they always huddled in a corner, not to talk business but just to be together. Because they just liked to be together. And we celebrated all the holidays together, it was a very… we were all one big family. I mean I consider… I’ve always considered Uncle Sam and Uncle Fred and Auntie Claire just like my parents and their spouses… Uncle Saul and Aunt Hazel and Auntie Min. We were all just one big family.

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RT:     And what was the next move?

AC:    Winnipeg. And by that time that was January 1975 and that to me was one of the  most difficult things that we had done was move from where I was born which is really warm [former republic of Moldavia], to Israel which is warmer, to Belgium which is kind of wet, to Winnipeg which is just frigid, freezing cold and in 1975 the winters were harsh. I mean now obviously things, with Global Warming, things are a lot warmer. But, holy-moly, I hated Canada. [Laughter].
 
RT:         How old were you then about eight?
 
AC:         Seven and a half.
 
RT:         And when did your attitude about that change?
 
AC:         Like anything it takes time, a couple of years.
 
RT:         Make friends and stuff.
 
AC:         Yeah, that was hard too. I think when you come into a country and kids are mean sometimes when you have a bit of an accent. On top of it all it was the Eagle and the Bear, the cold war was going on and so people don’t see …
 
RT:         Suspicious?
 
AC:         Well don’t see beyond, even in a private Hebrew school, don’t see beyond the Russian part. Coming from a tough stock, coming from the school of hard knocks and surrounded by a lot of sheltered, very soft (I called the North American Jews very soft), thin skinned … I basically fought for my respect, you know, stood up for my rights. Maybe acquired a bit of a bully persona going throughout elementary and junior high school but if that’s what it took for me to gain respect I was going to get that, and that’s what it was and that’s fine.

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NO: What kinds of volunteer work have you done in the past?
 
DM:       Volunteer work? Well, I worked for approximately eight years with Beth Tikvah in the capacity of President, past-President, involvement in education committees and various other committees over a period of eight to ten years.
 
NO:        When was Beth Tikvah founded, what year?
 
DM:       Well Beth Tikvah was started originally as a Jewish community in Richmond and that was in 1970/71 and after four or five years as a Jewish community association it became a synagogue, and was originally started in 1970. In the summer of 1970 on of the rabbis in Vancouver by the name of Harold Rubin, he was the rabbi of the Temple Sholom, he was living in Richmond and he found that his children were discriminated against when they missed school to go to the synagogue for Jewish holidays, so he was quite concerned that the community was not aware of Jewish holidays in the area. So he proceeded to send out notification tall the Jewish families that he knew of in Richmond for a meeting, and this took place in June of 1970. And from that meeting a loosely arranged group of families got together over the summer and met to try and form a community association. In the fall of 1970 we had a meeting here at the Jewish Community Centre in Vancouver at which there were about sixty or seventy families and we got together and formed Richmond/Delta Jewish community association. I was chosen first President because I had kept notes over the summer and nobody else wanted to take on the job. So from the fall of 1970 we met regularly in different members’ homes to develop a constitution, to set up various committees; we had a President, vice-President, secretary, treasurer, social committee, education committee, ways and means committee, we had a welcoming committee who would welcome new families into the community and this is how we started. The first fund-raisers occurred in the fall of ’71 and our goal as the time was to set up a pre-school and an after-school Hebrew school, so in the fall of ’71 we had a bazaar and we had a raffle, we built a playhouse for children and we raffled this off and we also had a bazaar at the same time and we raised money towards setting the school up. Finally in the fall of ’71 we were able to set up this pre-school.

 

 

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